This report is the compilation of data related to different fields of science, technology, education, industry and market in each ECO member countries. It is worthy to mention that it is not the analysis of the data in any possible form since the part of analyzing the gathered data is postponed to the versions following the present one.
In this report there are several indices which are used as signals to specify areas in different fields in all ECO countries. For one thing, the number of published scientific papers and articles is taken as an index of scientific level index. The number of active scientific institutes and centers, as well as universities is an index of science and knowledge transfer. The number of registered patents is an index of technology, and the volume of import/export and variety of products is viewed as the index of trade and industry.
The above mentioned areas and realms are not the only fields available when it comes to writing reports on countries. Other areas as hot subject areas, financial supports, and the amount of collaboration with other countries are potentials that would be the scope and focus of further future studies in future collaboration.
The research methods used for finding the above information considering publications, registered patents, volume of import and export are presented in the following sections.
For many years, the number of publications has been used as an indicator to assess capabilities of countries in a scientific or technological area. So in the current study, the numbers of nanotechnology related publications are employed as a tool to extract the information. ISI Web of Knowledge is an online academic database which provides access to many databases and other resources. One of the resources is Web of Science (http://www.webofscience.com/) which covers almost 10,000 leading journals of science, technology, social sciences, arts, and humanities and over 100,000 book-based and journal conference proceedings. To extract nanotechnology related publications, a comprehensive search string is used in Web of Science and the results are analyzed online in the website in the last
quarter of 2015. This means, the obtained data are only based on ISI database and did not validated with any other national organizations in member countries. In case of any inconsistency of the presented data, please inform the ECO nano secretariat to update the information in the next versions. As it was mentioned in the introduction, in the next phases more information can be obtained by identifying focal points in member countries and mobilizing needed resources. The name of all universities, organizations and institutes are also based on ISI standards classification; the full name and location can be obtained by a simple Google search. It is worth mentioning that timespan for the current study is 2001-2014.
The following information is gathered by the method:
- Number of nanotechnology publications
- Active institutes and organizations in nanotechnology
- Identifying focal points (authors of nanotechnology-publications and their details)
- Collaboration with other countries and institutes
- Financial supports
- Hot subject areas in the researches
- Most active universities and institutes in nanotechnology
- Number of registered patents
Search String used for retrieving nanotechnology related publications:
(nano* not nano2 not nano3 not nanog not nanosecond* not nanomol* not nanogram* not nanoplankton* or "atom* scale" or "atomic layer deposi-tion*" or "giant magnetoresist*" or graphen* or dendrimer* or fulleren* or "c-60" or "langmuir blodgett*" or mesopor* or "molecul* assembl*" or "molecul* wire*" or "porous silicon*" or "quantum dot*" or "quantum well*" or "quantum comput*" or "quantum wire*" or qubit* or "self assembl*" or supramolecul* or supermolecul* or "ultrathin film*" or "ultra thin film*")
The institutions with the highest number of publication in each country and also the authors with most publication have been highlighted in the report. It has been tried to provide an overview of the features and departments of the selected institutions. Not all the mentioned laboratories and departments within institutions are engaged in nanotechnology, but departments that can potentially be involved in nanotechnology or it's applications have been highlighted. This has been done based on the judgment of the authors of this report.
A patent is an exclusive right granted for an invention that can be a product or a process that provides, in general, a new way of doing something, or offers a new technical solution to a problem. Technically speaking, the exclusive rights are only applicable in the country or region in which a patent has been filed and granted, in accordance with the law of that country or region. This report is based on international patent analysis of ECO countries. Required data for this analysis are extracted from Orbit patent database (https://www.orbit.com/ and http://statnano.com/) in the last quarter of 2015. Patents are analyzed based on patents registration in USPTO and EPO as two important patent offices in the world.
Search String used for retrieving nanotechnology related patents:
(nano* not nano2 not nano3 not nanog not nanosecond* not nanomol* not nanogram* not nanoplankton* or "atom* scale" or "atomic layer deposi-tion*" or "giant magnetoresist*" or graphen* or dendrimer* or fulleren* or "c-60" or "langmuir blodgett*" or mesopor* or "molecul* assembl*" or "molecul* wire*" or "porous silicon*" or "quantum dot*" or "quantum well*" or "quantum comput*" or "quantum wire*" or
qubit* or "self assembl*" or supramolecul* or supermolecul* or "ultrathin film*" or "ultra thin film*")
There may be different sources for collecting data as to the value and volume of import-export between countries which may report varying or even contradicting data, but their validity and reliability are yet to be trusted and used in this study. Among these centers international ones like world bank.org, or atlas.media.mit.edu are the ones which are more trusted and used as the base of information in this report. It is to be noted that the data, in this section, cover the time span before 2014 and collect-ed in the last quarter of 2015.
The information in this paper is gathered on different areas such as import and export to and from different countries and ECO countries, the top import-export products, exhibitions in ECO countries, and collaboration between ECO countries.
Keywords for search: Import/export volume, high-tech import/export, net income, import/export products, added-value industries, etc.