Azerbaijan officially the Republic of Azerbaijan is a transcontinental country in the Caucasus region, situated at the crossroads of Eastern Eu-rope and Western Asia. It is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia to the west and Iran to the south. The exclave of Nakhchivan is bounded by Armenia to the north and east, Iran to the south and west, while having a short border with Turkey in the northwest.
Azerbaijan is in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia, straddling Western Asia and Eastern Europe. It lies between latitudes 38° and 42° N, and longitudes 44° and 51° E. The total length of Azerbaijan's land borders is 2,648 km (1,645 mi), of which 1007 kilometers are with Armenia, 756 kilometers with Iran, 480 kilometers with Georgia, 390 kilometers with Russia and 15 kilometers with Turkey. The coastline stretches for 800 km (497 mi), and the length of the widest area of the Azerbaijani section of the Caspian Sea is 456 km (283 mi). The territory of Azerbaijan extends 400 km (249 mi) from north to south, and 500 km (311 mi) from west to east.
From the total population of 9,165,000 people as of July 2011, nearly 52% was urban population; the remaining 48% was the rural population. 51% of the total population was female. The sex ratio for total population in that year was therefore 0.97 males per female.
The country’s manufacturing industries have grown considerably in the late 20th century. Azerbaijan manufactures equipment for the oil and gas industry, electrical equipment of all kinds, and many appliances and instruments. Azerbaijan exports chemicals, machinery, food (particularly grapes and other fruits and vegetables), petroleum and natural gas, iron and steel, nonferrous metals, and other products.