Kyrgyzstan officially the Kyrgyz Republic formerly known as Kirghizia, is a country located in Central Asia. Landlocked and mountainous, Kyrgyzstan is bordered by Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the west, Tajikistan to the south west and China to the east. Its capital and largest city is Bishkek.
Kyrgyzstan's population is estimated at 5.6 million in 2013. Of those, 34.4% are under the age of 15 and 6.2% are over 65. The average population density is 25 people per km².
Most Kyrgyz speak a language belonging to the northwestern, or Kipchak, group of the Turkic languages; Russian is also spoken, and official language status has been accorded to both Kyrgyz and Russian. Besides Kyrgyz, the country’s population includes minorities of Russians, Uzbeks, Ukrainians, and Germans, as well as Tatars, Kazakhs, Dungans (Hui; Chinese Muslims), Uighurs, and Tajiks.
By the late 20th century the republic had become a source for nonferrous metals, notably of antimony and mercury ores, and a producer of machinery, light industrial products, hydroelectric power, and food products.
The chief industries are the manufacture of machinery and electronic components, but food processing and light industries are also important and utilize local agricultural materials such as meat, fruit, and vegetables. Unlike other Central Asian countries, Kyrgyzstan does not suffer from a lack of water; irrigation canals have increased agricultural output substantially, especially cotton production in the Fergana Valley, the country’s main source for that crop.