Tajikistan officially the Republic of Tajikistan is a mountainous land-locked sovereign country in Central Asia. With an estimated 8 million people in 2013, it is the 98th most populous country and with an area of 143,100 km2 (55,300 sq. mi), it is the 96th largest country in the world. It is bordered by Afghanistan to the south, Uzbekistan to the west, Kyrgyzstan to the north, and China to the east. Pakistan lies to the south separated by the narrow Wakhan Corridor. Traditional homelands of Tajik people included present-day Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan.
Tajikistan has a population of 7,349,145 (July 2009 est.) of which 70% are under the age of 30 and 35% are among the ages of 14 and 30. Tajiks who speak Tajik (a dialect of Persian) are the main ethnic group, alt-hough there are sizable minorities of Uzbeks and Russians, whose numbers are declining due to emigration. The Pamiris of Badakhshan, a small population of Yaghnobi people, and a sizeable minority of Ismailis are all considered to belong to the larger group of Tajiks. All citizens of Tajikistan are called Tajikistanis.
After gaining independence, the country has been implementing economic reforms and institutional and structural changes on a regular basis, which is very important and reasonable for improvement of the banking and financial system meeting the contemporary international standards requirements. The country’s GDP has increased by 2.6 times since 1997, and its average growth has been equal to 7.1% per year. This level of economic development was achieved thanks to the consistent improvement of all sectors of the country’s economy. The country’s economy depends on agriculture, which employs two-fifths of the labour force. Tajikistan’s light industry is based on its agricultural production and includes cotton-cleaning mills and silk factories. Food-processing industries concentrate on local agricultural products, which include grapes and other fruits, various vegetable oils, tobacco, and geranium oil, which is used in perfume. In addition, Tajikistan possesses rich mineral deposits which are iron, lead, zinc, antimony, mercury, gold, tin, and tungsten.