In Turkey , the most of the nanotechnology research have been theoretical and stayed in individual basis. On the other hand, with the courtesy of 6th Framework of European Union, the nanotechnology researches are starting to reconstruct and gain another perspective. The first nanotechnology conference was organized by Bilkent University in Ankara in the year 2005. The interest to this conference was great and the amount of participants was more than expected
with high quality of scientific studies. Both state and private universities are starting to dedicate budgets for nanotechnology research, and government and private foundations initiated to support nanotechnology research. Additionally, Turkey has participated in the 6th Frame Programme of European Union and proposals related to nanotechnology and nanoscience have already being supported by the Programme. Under this frame, a National Nanotechnology Research Center was established by the contribution of Bilkent University and Turkish State Planning organization.
Nanotechnology Research Center at Bilkent University is dedicated to research on theoretical and experimental nanoscience and nanotechnology with strong emphasis on education and training. Interest areas of this research center are focused on both theoretical work such as the main problems of nanoscience and application of nanotechnology in the form of nanotubes, nanowires, quantum dots, magnetic molecules, frictionless surfaces. The center is an inter-disciplinary research environment which houses the nanotechnology related research efforts in science and engineering faculties, and serves to all departments in both faculties as well as the other Turkish universities that would like to have access to the center’s facilities. Another private university, Koç University in Istanbul has a Micro-Nano Technologies Research Center and mainly focused on the micromechanical device fabrication, solid state laser materials, electro-magnetic actuators, super hydrophobic surfaces as well as thin films of organic materials, surface modification by chemical and physical methods, characterization of nano-structured materials, friction at the atomic scale and nanotheology of liquids and polymers and synthesis advanced polymers.
The nanotechnology research is not a new subject for the well-known state universities namely Middle East Technical University and Hacettepe University in Ankara and Bosphorus University in Istanbul. There is a Central Laboratory and R&D Center in METU and the nanotechnology research is mainly focused on biomaterials, intelligent materials and nanocomposites. Hacettepe University with its Departments of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering have been contributing to the fields of nanopolymers, nanocomposites and nanobiomaterials for many years with active research groups working in these fields. Bosphorus University is contributing in the nanoscience and nanotechnology field internationally with its Nanotechnology and Smart Materials Advanced Technologies Research and Development Center. Other than universities there are high technology institutes such as Gebze Institute of Technology, MAM- Marmara Research Center which is the research center of The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey and Izmir Institute of Technology are highly productive in the nanotechnology research area.
All of the mentioned universities and research centers have the international research standards and they have high quality article outcome as a result of those research facilities.
The underlined workshops and universities are not one of their kind examples; there are many Anatolian universities which are dealing with the nanotechnology subject especially on advanced ceramics, ceramic-metal composites, surface modification, semiconductors, coatings, optical and magnetic properties.
If one is dealing with nanotechnology, other than scientific improvement, there should be an industrially useful outcome of the research. Thus, other than universities, industrial companies are making their own progression by the R&D facilities also. One of the most important studies which take the interest of the public were the boron studies; Nanotechnology-NNT Company produces MCDP crystallites of boron and adds to the mo-tor oil, this suspended boron nano particles coats the inner sidewalls of the motors of the automobiles which improves friction resistance and ex-tends the motor life. Another important product is produced by a dye company, DYO-Nano a wall paint which is resistive to paling and getting dirty and has the property of self cleaning. As a result of the Nano technological researches about polymer and surface modification, Arçelik Company, which is a white goods and electronics company, has marketed two products; first one is odor filtering hygienic refrigerator and the second one full protection triangle multi hygienic refrigerator and Yeşim Textile Company is produced nano-structured smart fabrics that are iron easily, dry quickly and get dirty hardly and these fabrics have been ex-ported to American textile company GAP. Turkey’s future strategies for nanoscience and nanotechnology have been estimated and determined by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) which states the aims and objectives by the year 2023. According to the Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Strategies report of the TUBITAK the prior subjects concerning the nanotechnology are the following:
• Nanophotonics-Nanoelectronics-Nanomagnetism with the aim of being an international production center for integrated circuit systems with nanostructures.
• Nanomaterials; aimed to produce advanced nanocomposite materials, bio-inspired materials and catalysts, production of nanoelectronic and nanomechanical devices by self-assembling method.
• Fuel Cells and Energy; plan to produce fuel cells with high efficiency.
• Nanocharacterization; aimed to improve scanning probe micro-scopes and atomic force microscopes.
• Nanofabrication; aimed to produce nanostructures and integrated circuit systems with competency.
• Nanosized quantum information processing; aimed to be competent on designing, simulating and producing of nanoscale units
• Nanobiotecnology; plan to improve DNA diagnosis.
Figure 13 represents the number of nanotechnology articles published by Turkish scientists between 2001-2014.
Figure 13 Number of nanotechnology publications in Turkey
ACTIVE INSTITUTES AND UNIVERSITIES IN NANOTECHNOLOGY
Table 37 Active institutes and universities in nanotechnology in Turkey
As can be seen, amongst all institutes and universities in Turkey, “Middle E Tech Univ” published most scientific nanotechnology articles.
Table 38 represents authors of the articles who published more than 40 nanotechnology articles during 2001-2015.
Table 38 Authors of nanotechnology articles in Turkey
HOT SUBJECT AREAS
Table 42 Hot subject areas in nanotechnology articles in Turkey
MOST ACTIVE UNIVERSITIES AND INSTITUTES IN NANO-TECHNOLOGY
In this section, some information about the first top three institutes or universities which have the highest number of publications (departments, facilities, research centers and the like) is introduced.
MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
has 40 undergraduate programs within 5 faculties. Additionally, there are 5 Graduate Schools with 93 masters and 61 doctorate programs. 12 undergraduate programs (including 1 international program) are offered in connection with METU Northern Cyprus Campus.
Middle East Technical University (METU), a state university founded in 1956, currently has about 23,000 students of which 4,100 are in masters and 2,400 are in doctorate programs.
METU hosts about 1,430 international students from nearly 68 different countries studying toward myriad of academic degrees.
METU, with 137 Erasmus agreements and 156 bilateral exchange and cooperation agreements with universities in third countries annually sends 350 students and hosts 250 students and 60 teaching staff/researchers. The language of instruction at METU is English.
RELEVANT DEPARTMENTS AND RESEARCH CENTERS
Research Centers in METU
• Plant Biotechnology Research Laboratory
• Water Resources Research Center
• Metu-Center Nanotechnology
Metu-Center Nanotechnology is dedicated to Nanotechnology and bio-technology.
o Semiconductor nanostructures for Nano photonics and Nano electronics
o Magnetic Nanoparticles
o Heterogeneous Catalysis Research Group
Research Centers in Coordination with other Organizations
• Turkish Air Force-METU Coordination Center for R&D and Advanced Studies
• METU-KOSGEB Technology Development Center
• TÜBITAK Units
• Space Technologies Research Institute (UZAY)
Nanotechnology Materials and Devices Group in METU
They focus on the synthesis and solution
processing of carbon nanotubes and metallic/semiconducting nanowires. The aim is not simply device miniaturization using nanomaterials but rather the utilization of nano-materials for unforeseen applications through the fabrication of novel devices.
Research Interests are: Large Area and Flexible Electronics, Organic Electronics and Semiconducting Devices, Nanowires and Carbon Nano-tubes, Solar Cells, Light Emitting Diodes and Batterie.
Micro and Nanotechnology Program in METU
The graduate program in Micro and Nanotechnology is a joint interdisciplinary program of the following Departments: Biological Sciences, Chemistry, Physics, Chemical Engineering, Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Engineering Sciences, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Mining Engineering and Mechanical Engineering.
This program is open to the students of undergraduate degree from physical and/or life sciences and engineering departments. Graduates of other science and engineering departments will be required to take preparatory courses depending on the individual’s background according to the deci-sion of Admission Committee up to 2 semesters.
Major research subjects are the following:
1. Nano Photonics, Optoelectronics, Micro and Nanoelectronics, Nano Magnetism
3. Micro and Nanofabrication and Characterization
4. Nano Biotechnology and BioMEMS
5. Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS)
Bilkent University- the first private, non-profit university in Turkey- was founded on October 20, 1984, by Professor İhsan Doğramacı, M.D., with the fundamental aim of creating a center of excellence in higher education and research. The name "Bilkent" exemplifies this aim, since it is an acronym of "bilim kenti": Turkish for "city of learning and science." The University campus is located off the main highway to Eskişehir about 12 km. (10 miles) west of the center of Ankara, and covers an area of more than 500 hectares (1200 acres).
DEPARTMENTS AND RESEARCH CENTERS
• Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
• Department of Mechanical Engineering
• Department of Chemistry
• Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics
• Department of Physics
Nanotechnology Research Center
Nanotechnology Research Center at Bilkent University is dedicated to re-search on theoretical and experimental nanoscience and nanotechnology with strong emphasis on education and training.
Center is an interdisciplinary research environment which houses the nanotechnology related research efforts in science and engineering faculties, and serves to all departments in both faculties as well as the other Turkish universities that would like to have access to the centers facilities.
The center has a total of 250 square meter of class-100 level clean room for sub-micron lithography along with general-purpose electrical and optical characterization measurements. A new AIXTRON RF200/4 RF-S GaN/AlGaN MOCVD epitaxial growth system has been recently installed and can be used for the growth of all GaN and related materials. The center has also supporting nanofabrication and characterization laboratories.
INSTITUTE OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY (UNAM) AT BILKENT UNIVERSITY
mission is to train experts through a multidisciplinary graduate program and develop new and high technologies based on nanoscience to strengthen the competitiveness of Turkish products in international mar-kets and hence to contribute to the improvement of living standards in Turkey. To this end,
1. UNAM, being a national research facility and a center of excellence in nanotechnology, carries out professional research targeting to develop new technologies or prototypes.
2. UNAM announces project calls to partner institutions to do joint R&D on current problems of the industry .
3. UNAM trains technique personnel, researchers and experts through courses and the graduate program in Materials Science and Nano-technology.
4. UNAM creates a platform for the exchange of know-how and joint work with Turkish scientists abroad.
5. UNAM develops management information and laboratory safety systems to be used also in similar
6. UNAM organizes regional and national workshop and conferences
7. UNAM frequently takes parts in preparation of TV and radio pro-grams, scientific magazines and newspapers for public education about nanoscience and nanotechnology.
The list of relevant research areas and laboratories are as follow:
• Biomimetic Materials
• Fibers and Fiber Devices
• Materials Growth
• MEMS/NEMS Sensors
• Molecular Nanotechnology
• Nano biotechnology
• Nano devices
• Smart Materials
• Sustainable Technologies
• Imaging and Characterization Laboratory
• Specimen Preparation Laboratory
• Scanning Probe Microscopy Laboratory
• Nanofabrication Laboratory
• Surface Analysis Laboratory
• X-Ray Diffraction Laboratory
• NMR Laboratory
• Nano-optic Laboratory
• Nano photonics Laboratory
• Spectroscopy Laboratory
• OPA Laboratory
• Optical Characterization Laboratory
• Thermal and Mechanical Characterization Laboratory
• Optics & Photonics Laboratory
• Fiber & Fiber Devices Laboratory
• Smart Materials Laboratory
• Nano electronic Laboratory
• Nano photonic Laboratory
• Material Characterization Laboratory
• Nano-scale Materials Laboratory
• Biomimetic Materials Laboratory
• Molecular Nanotechnology Laboratory
• Supromolecular Chemistry Laboratory
• Nano textile Laboratory
• Material Chemistry Laboratory
• Nano biotechnology Laboratory
• Bioprocessing Laboratory
• Sustainable Technologies Laboratory
• Mammalian Cell Culture Laboratory
• Bioimaging Laboratory
THE NATIONAL METROLOGY INSTITUTE OF TURKEY (UME)
The National Metrology Institute of Turkey (UME) is not a most active institute in nanotechnology at turkey but due to crucial role of UME in developing of nanotechnology in Turkey, it is introduced in this section.
The National Metrology Institute of Turkey (UME), work on whose foundation began in 1982, was formally established as an institute tied to the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBĐTAK) in 1986 for the purposes of facilitating the development of the high-technology production capacity of our country’s industrial sector through building and improving the national measurement and metrology infra-structure. TÜBĐTAK UME was established to be a primary level measurement center to meet the needs of private and public sector entities in industry and other relevant areas. TÜBĐTAK UME, which has strived to meet the demands of all types of industry through the supply of calibration, testing, repair/maintenance services, as well as training and consult-ing in the field of metrology, has also aimed at making a contribution to the development of new technologies through the adoption of the newest techniques in measurement and calibration.
In 2007 TÜBĐTAK UME ranked among the founding members of the European Association of National Metrology Institutes (EURAMET). In 2008, TÜBĐTAK UME joined the ERA NET+ projects under the EU 7th Framework Programme in partnership with other European national metrology institutes. A project proposal made under the Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance (IPA), for initiating the production of chemical reference materials in our country has been accepted. Training of the personnel to be employed in the project have begun, and work will start in 2009
TÜBĐTAK UME signed a contract with the Bureau of Metrology of Macedonia (BoM) for the provision of technical support within the scope of a World Bank assistance project.
NUMBER OF REGISTERED PATENTS
Turkey published 29 patents between 2000-2015 based on USPTO data-base.
Figure 14 Turkey USPTO granted patents in field of nanotechnology
Figure 15 Turkey EPO granted patents in field of nanotechnology
Figure 16 Turkey EPO published patents in field of nanotechnology
Figure 17 Turkey USPTO published patents in field of nanotechnology