Table 41 Agencies active in funding ISI articles in Turkey
Turkey is the 27th largest export economy in the world and the 40th most complex economy according to the Economic Complexity Index (ECI). In 2013, Turkey exported $164B and imported $225B, resulting in a negative trade balance of $60.6B. In 2013 the GDP of Turkey was $822B and its GDP per capita was $11k.
The top exports of Turkey are Cars ($7.32B), Refined Petroleum ($5.01B), Raw Iron Bars ($4.81B), Vehicle Parts ($4.59B) and Delivery Trucks ($4.27B), using the 1992 revision of the HS (Harmonized System) classification. Its top imports are Gold ($16B), Refined Petroleum ($15.9B), Cars ($9.3B), Scrap Iron ($7.19B) and Petroleum Gas ($5.3B).
The top export destinations of Turkey are Germany ($15.5B), Iraq ($11.9B), the United Kingdom ($8.92B), France ($7.7B) and Italy ($7.26B). The top import origins are Germany ($25.8B), China ($24.3B), Russia ($14.5B), Italy ($13.2B) and the United States ($12.1B).
EXHIBITIONS, COMPANIES, AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER CENTERS
In terms of holding exhibitions, it is to be noted that Turkey has exhibitions in 23 different categories comprising 162 exhibitions all together. The categories are packaging, computer, colour and other chemical products, leather, shoes and fur, electric and electronics, industrial equipment, energy and ventilation, food industry, instruments, cosmetics, technology and machinery, medicine, furniture and decoration, automobiles and accessories, plastic, water technology, textile, tourism, fire and safety, building and construction, agriculture and animal husbandry, commerce, and education. Of the mentioned exhibitions food industry, electric and electronics, building and construction, agriculture and animal husbandry, and education have the highest frequency in holding exhibitions in Turkey.
TRADE WITH ECO COUNTRIES
Turkey, like some other ECO countries, exports its products to all ECO countries the biggest is Iran and the smallest is Pakistan with 4118 and 247 million dollars respectively. The other countries are Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan taking 2568, 1928, 932, 561, 288, 284, 276 million dollars respectively.
Turkey is even considered one of the importers among ECO countries since it imports from all ECO countries as Kazakhstan, Iran, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Afghanistan buying 2910, 1304, 809, 638, 479, 466, 365, 87, 10 million dollars of their products respectively.